T 63 China’s copper smelting technology was invented in the late primitive society, and the Yin Dynasty was the first peak in the history of the development of bronze in China.Most of the Bronzes of the Yin Dynasty are richly decorated, with patterns covering the whole body and having upper and lower levels, even as high as bas-reliefs.There are also a few bronze ware simple decoration, or even plain without ornaments or only a string.Bronze ware also often has raised three-dimensional decoration.On August 25, 1964, China’s Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications issued special stamps 63 “Bronze ware of the Yin Dynasty”, a full set of 8 stamps.Tang Linkun, Sun Hongnian, Kong Shaohui, (361) (364) Kong Shaohui, (363) (366) Gao Pinzhang, (365) (367) Tang Linkun release Date: August 25, 196430×40mm, layout: 50 (10×5) Circulation: Quantity is not unified, see the illustrations below the full set of face value: 0.84 yuan Current market value: 1000 Yuan (for reference only) 8-1 (360) Circulation: 3 million physical objects collected by the Palace Museum Wu Zhoujue, late Shang Dynasty, 23 cm high.It is now in the Palace Museum.Long round belly, round bottom, front flow back tail, flow side has an umbrella column, beast head pull, three conical feet.The body of the casement is ornamented with animal face patterns on both sides, complemented by triangular and thunder patterns.On the outside of the vessel is the inscription “Fu Wu Zhou”, and on the first column is the inscription “Zuo Zun”, indicating that “Zhou” is the owner of this bronze vessel and makes this jue for the sacrifice of “Fu Wu”.In the Shang and Zhou dynasties, “Zun” not only refers to a wine vessel, but also a general name for the wine vessel.The inscription “Zun” is the second meaning.The stream of this count and the inscriptions cast on the column constitute a complete content, which is very rare in the count.The physical subbird collected by the Palace Museum is a gu (gū, pronounced with “gu”), in the late Shang Dynasty, 26.5 cm high, with a diameter of 15 cm and a bottom diameter of 8 cm.It is now in the Palace Museum.Gu bell mouth, waist and lower part are decorated with halberd, circle foot.The shape of the vessel is tall and slender, with obvious shrinkage in the middle, and has obvious characteristics of the copper gu in the late Shang Dynasty.The GU body is decorated with many fine patterns, which are divided into four layers from top to bottom: the neck is decorated with banana leaf patterns popular in this era;The lower end of the neck is decorated with snake pattern, the head of the snake is wide, and the eyes are prominent. This kind of decoration was popular in the middle and late Shang Dynasty and the Spring and Autumn and warring States periods.The waist and below are decorated with two layers of animal face grain, showing the unique nobility of ritual ware.There is a graphic inscription at the bottom, interpreted as “sub bird”, so this gu is named sub bird out of halberd gu.The graphic inscription is the emblem of a family at that time.Bronze gu appeared in the early Shang Dynasty, prevailed in the middle and late Shang Dynasty, and gradually decreased to the early Western Zhou Dynasty.According to “Dai Li Ji · Zeng Zi matter parents” : “hold the wine, gu, cup, bean and not drunk.”Gu is one of the most basic drinking utensils, which is often excavated in groups with Jue and 斝, indicating that in the ritual system, gu is mostly used together with jue and 斝 (jiǎ, with the sound of “jia”).Shi (yi) Fu yi (gōng) Circulation:4.5 million Shanghai museum collection of real nowhere (g not ng, the sound with the “workers”) cover the front is a fantasy animal head, a pair of the giraffe’s Angle and the ear of the rabbit, wide-open, two Angle after each have a bow body small snake, ridge relief in a slender capuchin little dragon, cover the back-end is a tauren, double Angle is outstanding, become warped on long tongue, with the tail of the form corresponding to the tauren handle.The abdomen is decorated with big phoenix pattern, the body is elegant, the expression is solemn, the other phoenix birds are decorated in the circle foot, the main phoenix back and the cover of each part, each shape, scattered well.The whole cast exquisite, decorative, solemn modeling, there are strong mysterious color.The gong ware and lid are opposite to each other, and the characters “Yi” are engraved on the plate, which is made by yi family for Yi.Horn (Yi) is used for drinking, and there are two kinds of shapes. One is to use animal images as utensils, especially cattle or sheep.The other is the upper body imitates the image of supernatural animals, and the lower body is the shape of utensils, such as the style of father yi bingzu as a circle foot.It is a new style of bronze decoration in the late Shang Dynasty without shading.8-4 (363) 斝 (Ji ǎ) Distribution: 4.5 million Physical copper 斝 (Ji ǎ Yin with “Jia”) collected by the National Museum is 46.5 cm high and 22.2 cm in diameter. It was unearthed in Funan County, Anhui Province in 1957.The bronze 斝 is round in shape, with 鋬 (pan on one side), animal face pattern on the belly wall, and two columns along the mouth as decoration.As a wine vessel, it can be found in central Plains merchant culture (anhui Province Museum also has the same style).The bronze 斝 found in Anhui province, where the Huaiyi people live in compact communities, is very similar to that found in central China, indicating that the local culture and the shang culture of the close exchange and integration, and reached a highly developed Bronze Age.8-5 (384) Four Sheep Square Zun circulation 1.5 million physical objects collected by the National Museum of the Four Sheep Square Zun is the late Shang Dynasty bronze ritual vessels, sacrificial supplies.It was excavated in 1938 on the hillside of Yueshan Pu Zhuanerlun, Huangcai Town, Ningxiang County, Hunan Province, and is now a site of the Charcoal River.Collected in the National Museum of China.Four sheep side is China’s existing shang dynasty bronze statue of one of the largest, its each side side length is 52.4 cm, 58.3 cm high and weighs 34.5 kg, long neck, ring foot high, neck, four edge decorated with in grain, triangle kui and his presence grain, is the central unit of center of gravity, and the corners of the plastic one sheep, four is four roll Angle and shoulderThe head and neck of the sheep are extended out of the device, and the body and leg of the sheep are attached to the abdomen and the ring foot.At the same time, the shoulder of the square statue is decorated with a claw dragon pattern with a snake body in high relief. In the middle of the four sides of the square statue is the place where two sheep are next to each other. A pair of horned dragon heads protrude from the table, winding in the middle of the front from the right shoulder of each square statue.According to the analysis of archaeologists, the square statue of the Four Sheep was cast by two separate casting techniques, that is, the ram’s horn and the dragon head were cast separately, and then they were placed in the outer mold and then cast as a whole.The whole vessel was cast by block casting method, which was accomplished without a single stop. It excelled the workmanship of nature and showed the superb casting level. It was called “the ultimate bronze model” by the historians and ranked among the top ten national treasures handed down from generation to generation.8-6 (365) Ue 箙 fu yǒu release 1.5 million The physical tuber collected by Shanghai Museum is 33.3 cm tall, 15 cm across, 13.7 cm vertical, weighing 6750 grams Tuber (yǒu is the same as “have”.Long cover high edge, bulging abdomen ptosis, circle foot.Strength longitudinal dragon-head girders, girders decorated with dragon patterns.From the cover to the circle foot ridge four.The apparatus and cover are decorated with large animal face in relief.The beast’s eyes are huge and exaggerated.The cover, neck and foot are decorated with dragon and bird patterns in different forms.The longitudinal beam device is different from the general transverse device, and the two sides of the li and cover pick out the double Angle, in order to enhance the momentum of the body.There is an inscription “oyue 箙 8-7 (366) who is against the dragon and tiger pattern bronze statue Release: 1 million The actual object dragon and tiger pattern bronze statue collected by the National Museum is a shang Dynasty bronze statue unearthed in 1957 in Funan County, Anhui Province.It has a height of 50.5 centimeters, a diameter of 44.9 centimeters, a foot diameter of 24 centimeters and a weight of 26.2 kilograms.The mouth of the device is huge, with a diameter over the shoulder, and the neck is high. The lower part of the device is contracted and is in the shape of a large horn.Shoulder drum, folded under the abdomen, curved convergence for the bottom, circle foot, decorated with a cross hollow.The shoulder is decorated with three curved dragon patterns, round carved dragon head, protruding out of the shoulder, vivid;Abdomen to yunlei grain as the ground, decorated with three groups of tiger man-eating grain, meaning mysterious;Circle foot adorns taotie pattern.Shang Dragon and tiger pattern bronze statue exquisite workmanship, pattern lines clean, is the shang dynasty bronzes in the fine, but also the study of the social history of cultural symbols.8-8 (367) the stepmother e circulation: 1 million national museum collection of physical objects, stepmother e ding, also known as si muwu ding, SiMuWu big square, is late shang (about 14 century to before the 11th century) casting products, in 1939 unearthed in anyang city henan province attaches village, hidden in the Chinese national museum of the ancient Chinese “basic display exhibition hall.The wu ding is 133 centimeters high, 110 centimeters long and 79 centimeters wide, and weighs 832.84 kilograms.The vessel has thick erect ears, folded edges, rectangular abdomen, and four-column feet under it .The four corners of the abdomen, the middle part of the upper and lower edges, and the upper part of the foot are all set with leaf edges.”The body and four feet of the wu ding were cast as a whole, while the ears were cast after the body was cast.The wu ding of Shang Houmu is huge in shape, majestic and exquisite in craft.The tripod body is surrounded by exquisite dragon patterns and taotie patterns, which increase the sense of majesty and dignity of the cultural relic itself.The cicada pattern cast on the foot shows the cicada body with clear lines.The inner abdominal wall is cast with “hou Mu wu” three characters, the font style is vigorous, the body is plump, the beginning and end of the strokes are more obvious peak dew manang, between the fat pen.The empress Wu ding of Shang dynasty is known as the heaviest bronze ware in ancient China.The casting of the wu ding of Shang Houmu fully shows that the bronze casting in the late Shang Dynasty was not only large in scale, but also well organized and carefully divided, which was enough to represent the highly developed bronze culture of Shang Dynasty.On January 18, 2002, it was listed in the catalogue of cultural Relics forbidden to be exhibited abroad as a national first-class cultural relic by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage.In the 1970s, the academic circle put forward a new review and interpretation of the inscription of the Empress wu ding of Shang: “Si” was changed to “Hou”.At the end of March 2011, the label and commentary of Shanghoumu Wuding were renamed.